Università telematica internazionale UNINETTUNO

FIRB 2012 - International Disaster Response Law: Regole e principi di diritto internazionale e dell'Unione europea in materia di prevenzione e gestione dei disastri naturali e antropici

Durata: 36 mesi (25/03/2013 - 25/03/2016)
WebSite: http://www.cirde.unibo.it/it/firb/


Descrizione

Studi recenti sembrano indicare una crescente incidenza di eventi calamitosi causati sia da fenomeni naturali che da attività umane pericolose. A volte i due fattori si combinano, dando luogo a catastrofi suscettibili di generare costi umani e materiali ingentissimi e di compromettere in maniera irreparabile l’ambiente (si pensi, ad esempio, ai recenti avvenimenti in Giappone).
Dovendo far fronte a eventi di eccezionale portata, gli Stati colpiti hanno invocato l’aiuto della comunità internazionale, chiamata ad assistere le popolazioni colpite attraverso l’organizzazione di attività di soccorso. Gli attori intervenuti si sono tuttavia frequentemente trovati ad operare in un quadro giuridico internazionale frammentato e lacunoso, che ne ha frenato le attività, compromettendone l’efficacia.
Anche le attività di prevenzione dei disastri e di mitigazione dei rischi ad essi connessi non sono attualmente disciplinate in maniera soddisfacente. I pochi strumenti esistenti si attagliano soltanto ad alcuni tipi di disastri, o hanno portata regionale o, ancora, non sono giuridicamente vincolanti.
Il presente progetto di ricerca intende fornire un contributo alla risoluzione dei problemi esaminati, cercando di identificare il quadro normativo vigente in materia di prevenzione dei (e risposta ai) disastri naturali e antropici (c.d. International Disaster Response Law, IDRL). L’analisi condurrà poi all’individuazione dei deficit normativi esistenti e alla formulazione di proposte concrete atte a colmarli. L’obiettivo generale del progetto è di rendere più efficaci i meccanismi internazionali tesi alla prevenzione dei disastri e alla loro gestione, nella speranza che una regolamentazione giuridica più completa possa ridurre la portata distruttiva di tali eventi e le perdite umane e materiali ad essi connesse.
 
 Output
 
 Gli output della ricerca saranno molteplici. Oltre all’elaborazione di puntuali contributi scientifici sui temi affrontati, principalmente in lingua inglese per garantirne l’ampia diffusione, si svilupperanno codici di condotta e manuali per favorire l'applicazione dei principi dell’IDRL da parte degli stakeholders rilevanti. Si svilupperanno inoltre proposte di intervento organiche rispetto all'ordinamento italiano che è in parte inadeguato rispetto ai temi in oggetto. Per facilitare la diffusione dei risultati, si prevede anche la creazione di un apposito sito web del progetto e di una newsletter.

Obiettivi

The main objective of the IDL Project is the one of improving the effectiveness of those international mechanisms aimed at disaster prevention and management. In order to gain such goal, the Project intends to:

  • Identify existing International Law norms regulating disaster prevention and management
  • Develop a shared vocabulary of IDL-related terms
  • Classify rights, duties and responsibilities of States, IOs and non-State actors
  • Develop a catalogue of rights to which disasters' victims are entitled
  • Define the legal framework that regulates the implementation of international relief operations
  • Describe regional mechanisms in the are of disaster response
  • Assess the degree to which IDL has been incorporated into domestic legal systems

Eventually, by achieving these specific objectives, the IDL Project will contribute to the identification of existing gaps, improve awareness among relevant actors and encourage scholarly debate on the topic.

 

Sant'Anna Unit

Coordinated by dr. Emanuele Sommario, research conducted as Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies is divided into four clusters. First, Sant'Anna will place IDL within the historical, political and factual context that has triggered its emergence and eventually spurred its rapid development. Second, it will assess the scope of IDL and its semantics, by conducting a survey of relevant universal, regional and bilateral treaties and soft law instruments dealing with it. Third, Sant'Anna will analyse the contribution of other branches of International Law to the development of IDL, in order to ascertain whether norms not specifically created to address disaster situations might nonetheless influence IDL regulatory framework. Lastly, it will explore the regional dimension of IDL with respect to Africa, the Americas and Asia through a comparative analysis, which will provide other Units with a state-of-the-art map of regional initiatives and allow them to compare their relative effectiveness.

 

UNINETTUNO Unit

Coordinated by dr. Flavia Zorzi Giustiniani, the Uninettuno Unit will address issues related to rights, obligations and responsibilities of disasters' affected States. To this end, the research will be divided into three clusters. First, Uninettuno will explore the question of humanitarian access and the related role of the affected State, touching aspects such as the actual meaning of sovereignty and consent. Second, via adopting a victim-centered perspective, the Unit will unveil minimum standards of human rights protection in case of disaster, in light of Special Rapporteur Valencia Ospina intention to devote the second part of the International Law Commission Draft Articles on the Protection of Persons in the Event of Disasters to victims' rights. Lastly, the Unit will verify the existence or progressive development of an obligation for States to prevent disasters and subsequently investigate legal mechanisms of disaster prevention.

 

Roma 3 Unit

Coordinated by dr. Giulio Bartolini, the Roma Tre Unit twill review the rights, obligations and legal responsibilities of external actors intervening in territories strucked by disasters. Moreover, it will analyse the role of International Law in defining duties and limits of disasters relief missions in three clusters. First, humanitarian access by third actors and the relevance of the R2P doctrine in the context of disasters will be studied. Second, Roma Tre will investigate the implementation of international relief actions and legal operative issues, focusing on (i) regulatory obstacles related to the handling of relief goods and equipments, (ii) the status of disaster relief personnel, (iii) the civil-military cooperation and the use of armed forces in relief action, (iv) the emerging role of Private Security Companies and (v) the funding of relief operations. Lastly, Roma Tre will explore the responsibility and accountability of third actors for wrongful acts committed during relief activities.

 

Bologna Unit

Coordinated by dr. Federico Casolari, the Bologna Unit will review response solutions offered by the EU legal order to disasters, given the unique and multifaceted mechanism developed therein following the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty. The research will be divided in two clusters. First, the study concerning IDL aspects within the EU legal order will lead to examine (i) the interaction between IDL and EU law, (ii) EU instruments addressed to emergencies and (iii) its response to natural and man-made disaster occurring both inside the Union and overseas. Second, Bologna will look at the implementation of EU legal solutions to disasters in municipal legal systems. Indeed, the effectiveness of EU response to disasters depends on the implementation mechanisms resorted to by States in order to abide to their obligations. The emphasis will here be on the Italian legislation and on the one of those States that have recently introduced ad hoc legal instruments.



Partner

Sede centrale

Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, 39
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Posta certificata

info@pec.uninettunouniversity.net

Segreteria Studenti

Numero verde: 800 333 647
tel: +39 06 692076.70 (1)
e-mail: info@uninettunouniversity.net

Videoconferenza

Biblioteca 1^ piano: 90.147.90.157
Sala Riunioni 5^ piano: 90.147.90.158

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